On 1st November 2016, Nobel Lecture delivered by Physics Nobel Laureate,
Prof Gerard ‘t Hooft, held at the Hasanuddin University Senate Hall
in the form of teleconference broadcasted from ITB Bandung.
Prof. ‘t Hooft visited ITB as a Keynote Speaker
for The 6th International Conference on Mathematics and Natural Scinces. The Senate Room was anttended by many Physics enthusiasts, comprising
lecturers and students as well as many guests from outside who were very
happy with this very rare lecture Several universities are participating in this teleconference, i.e., ITB as the host, UGM, IPB, ITS, UM Malang
and Unhas as the only University outside Java.
The topic delivered are very comprehensive, Explaining the Laws of the Universe – Challenges in Physics Research and Education, which describes all spects associated with matter and energy as well as
the structure of space-time. The explanation begun with events and processes
taking place in the Sun, which can be studied multi-disciplinarily,
because it involves particle physics, nuclear, compound, energy and information. Then, Prof. ‘t Hooft wen on by describing the standard model, which he referred to as Standard Theory.
There was a discussion session chaired by Prof. Umar Fauzi, who is also the Dean of FMIPA ITB. The chairman invited representaion from each teleconferense sites. The first opportunity was given to Unhas followed by ITS, UGM, and IPB.
Dr. Tasrief Surungan from Unhas raised a question
related to Prof. ‘t Hooft’s statement who called the Standard Model
as the Standard Theory. In his response, ‘t Hooft explaned
that it is a form of scientific appreciation for the success of
the model in many aspects, despite a number of problems that are still being cultivated.
This lecture which was started at 10.30 am lasted almost two hours.
Participants, most of them are students, considered that this was a golden opportunity.
Never before lecture delivered by a Nobel laureate held
in Hasanuddin university. The floks hope that one day in the future, there is a
scientist from Unhas who can achieve such noble status.
Nobel Prize in Physics 2016 was awarded to the three British physicists who worked in USA. They are David Thouless of Washington University, Duncan Haldane of Princeton University and John Kosterlitz from Brown University. Their contribution is in the field of theoretical physics that have revealed the existence of the exotic phase transition two-dimensional systems. This study in the realm of Condensed Matter Theoretical Physics.
Phase transitions as understood are ubiquitous phenomena. The most common example is the melting of ice into water due to heating, and evaporation of water into steam. This type of phase transition is commonly known as the first-order phase tranition, which can be observed macroscopically where there is a changes in the structure of matter. Kosterlitz and Thouless shows another type phase transition occurring microscopic scale, such as those experienced by a magnetic material.
Magnetic material at high temperatures would lose its magnetism, and when cooled down to a certain temperature will spontaneously become a magnet. The phenomenon of spontaneous magnetization successfully explained by a simple mathematical model, Ising model, according name of the inventor, Ernest Ising, is a pioneering research in the study of Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) transition. If Ising considered conventional magnetic system, KT examined quasi magnetic material with phase transition between quasi-regular and paramagnetic.
To experience the exotic KT transition, interacting magnetic moments must have a planar symmetry, for example O(2) or C (n), and reside a two-dimensional structure. This phenomenon is in fact present in a number of physical systems, such as superconductivity and superfluid, and a number of other systems such as a thin layer and a chain of atoms and molecules. The interesting thing is that this subject was theoretically studied by KT in the mid 70s, which is then followed by Duncan Haldane studying a model of quantum system. The study is now known to apply in the invention of a number of advanced material, including in the development of quantum computers and advanced sensors for various applications.
As an appreciation and service to physics community, Physisical Review Journals, published by the American Physical Society had made the Nobels journals open, with the following links: